Islamic Dictionary

 

You might have noticed unfamiliar Arabic terms or English abbreviations/titles/names. An attempt at explaining them follows. If there is still some term that is unclear, please do not hesitate to contact us.

The definitions are by no means comprehensive, and serve as an introduction to the term. A full definition of each term would surely require more disk space than available in all the world!

A

• Aaron see Harun.

 

• Aayat are signs from God.

• Abar Ali is the name of a place where Masjidu Shajarah is situated 7 km outside of Medinah.

 

• Abbas b. Ali b. Abi Talib was the brother of Imam Hussein (A.S.). His mother was Umm al-Banin. Abbas was killed at Karbala.

'Abd is a true servant of Allah (swt).

• Abu Dharr al-Ghiffari (Jundub b. Junada) was a companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.) who was loyal to Imam Ali (A.S.) He died in 32 (A.H.) 651 (A.D.) after being expilled by Uthman.

• Abu Talib was the father of Ali (A.S.) looked after the Prophet (S.A.W.) when the latter was a child.

• Ada' is a prayer offered within its time.

• 'Adl is Divine Justice.

• Adam was the first man and the first prophet of Allah.

• Adhan is the call for daily ritual prayers (Salat).

• Ahkam refers to the religious practical regulations that are called “the branches of religion”.

• Ahl ul-Bayt (as) refers to the purified Household of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) that consist of the Prophet (s) himself, his daughter Fatimah (a), his son-in-law and first divinely appointed Imam, Ali (a), and their progeny of divinely appointed Imams, numbering twelve in total.

• Ahlul-khibra are the people of experience.

• Ahwat is a precaution. This can be obligatory or optional as ruled by the Mujtahid.

• Akhlaq refers to the spiritual matters of religion, i.e. ethics and morality that are the qualities of the soul.

• Akhirah is the Hereafter.

• Alaykum as-salam is Arabic for "upon you be peace". The response to the greeting “as-salamu alaykum”.

• A'lam is the top ranking jurist.

• Ale Muhammad Blood kin, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).

• Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) is the first Imam (A.S.), the cousin and son-in-law of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). He is referred to as Ameer al-Mu'mineen, the Leader of the Faithful. He was poisoned in 661 A.D.

• Ali b. al-Husayn b. Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) is the fourth Imam.

• Ali b. Muhammad b. Ali b. Musa al-Hadi, Abu al-Hasan (A.S.) is the 10th Imam.

• Ali b. Musa al-Rida, Abu al-Hasan (A.S.) is the eighth Imam.

• 'Alim is a scholar.

• Allah (swt) refers to God, glory be to Him, there is no god but He. Allah is a Divine name of God. It is the perfect name for God as it truly denotes the absolute Oneness of God. The name has no plural and no feminine form.

• A'maal are acts of worship.

• Amir is a leader.

• Amirul Mu'mineen The commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (A.S.).

• Amr bil Ma-roof ordering to goods.

• Arafah is the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah.

• Arafat is the area about 25 km. away from Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

• A.H. refers to After Hijrah.

• Aqaid refers to the Islamic theology and belief system.

'Aql is intellect.

• A.S. refers to 'Alayhis-salaam', (God's) peace be with him. It is said after the names of all previous prophets, their mothers (e.g. Bibi Maryam [Mary] A.S.), the twelve divine Imams from the household of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and Bibi Fatima (A.S.). It will change to 'Alayhas-salaam (peace be with her) if it follows a lady's name. After any two names we say 'Alayhimas-salaam and after more than two names or when referring a group of people we say 'Alayhimus-salaam. Thus, we say Imams Hasan and Husayn (A.S. = 'alayhimas-salaam) and the Ahul-Bayt (A.S. = 'alayhimus-salaam).

• As-salamu alaykum is the Arabic greeting "may peace be upon you."

• Ashura the day Iman Hussain (as) was killed in Karbala land.

• 'Asr is the afternoon, and the prayer of the afternoon, i.e.'Asr prayer.

• Ayah is a sign of Allah or a verse of the Qur'an (pl. Ayat).

• Ayatul Kursi Verse No. 255 in Suratul Baqarah.

• Azan see Adhan.

B

• Baab-al-Salaam is one of the famous gates of Masjidul Haraam.

Badan-e Mithah is a new semi-abstract body which our soul is placed inside after death. It looks like a physical body, but has no physical mass.

Badihi is for example, the obligation of prayer or the prohibition of adultery, that everyone knows.

• Baligh is one who is an adult.

• Barzakh is an interval, barrier or border between two things. So, it refers to the place of transit between this world and the next, where the soul resides in a state of limbo after death and before the Day of Resurrection.

• Batil is falsehood.

• Bilal was a companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

• Bismillah means In the Name of Allah or I begin in the Name of Allah.

• Bulugh is puberty.

• Burhan al-Siddiqin is the proof of the veracious (the Truth).

D

• David see Dawood.

• Dawood (David) was a Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Deen is religion.

• Dhihn is the centre of cognition, i.e. the mind.

• Dhikr is the remembrance of Allah (swt) by the recitation of special invocations and mentioning His attributes and glorifying Him, usually done during and after ritual prayers.

• Dhimmah is a contract.

• Dhimmi is one other than a Muslim (i.e. an unbeliever) that lives in a Muslim country under a contract (dhimmah) between him and the Muslims due to which he respects their social laws and limits and pays certain taxes and in return his life and properties are protected by the Muslims.

• Dhuhr is the noon, and the prayer of the noon, i.e. Dhuhr prayer.

• Dhul Hijjah is the last month (12th) of the Islamic calendar.

• Dhul Qidah is the 11th month of the Islamic calendar.

 

​• Diraya is the science of knowing the meanings of the traditions as well as knowing which ones are true and which ones are false.

 

• Dirham is a former Arabic monetary unit.

 

• Du'a is supplication.

E

• Ehtiaat see Ahwat.

• Ehtiaat-Mustahabbi is a preferable precaution.

• Ehtiaat-Waajib is an obligatory precaution which must be followed.

• Eid is an Islamic holiday. The four Eids are listed below:

    • Eid al-Adha is the “festival of the sacrifice” which occurs on the 10th day of Dhul al-Hijjah and last for 4 days until the 13th day.

    • Eid al-Fitr is the “festival of breaking the fast” which occurs on the 1st day of Shawwal and also marks the end of the Holy month of Ramadan.

    • Eid-e Ghadeer is a significant event that occurred on the 18th of Dhul al-Hijjah of the year 10 AH (10 March 632 CE). On the way back to Medina, due to revelation of the verse of announcement, Prophet Muhammad (as) gathered all Muslims and made a speech announcing Imam Ali (as) as his Successor appointed by Allah (swt).

    • Eid-e Mubahala on the morning of 24th Dhul Hijja an event took place between Prophet Muhammad (as) and the Christains. The Christians of Najran came to Medina claiming that Isa (Jesus) is divine and the son of Allah (swt). In fact, they meant to determine whether Muhammad's claims were in accordance with the prophecies of their holy books.

 

• Eqama is the second call to prayer that should be said immediately before the prayer and is identical to the azan/adhaan with three exceptions: (1) the initial phrase, "Allahu akbar," is only said twice; (2) the final phrase, "La ilaaha illa Allah," is only said once, and (3) the phrase "Qad qaamat as-salaah" ("Prayer is being offered") should be inserted after "Hayya 'alaa khayr al-'amal."

F

• Fajr is the dawn, and denotes Subhe-Sadiq, i.e. the prime time for prayer that is the Fajr prayer.

• Farsakh is a distance of approx. 5.5 km.

• Fatiha is the opening chapter of the Holy Qur'an.

• Fatima or Fatema (A.S.) is the Chief of the women of the worlds, is the daughter of the Prophet (S.A.W.) and the wife of Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.), the mother of Hasan and Hussein (A.S.).

• Fatwa is a verdict, especially of a Mujtahid.

• Fidyah is a sacrifice of an animal for expiation.

• Fiqh is a science of religious jurispudence.

• Fitrah is the charity due on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr, on the night after Ramadhan.

• Furu’ al-Din are the branches of Islam and religious practices.

G

• Ghadeer is the name of a place near Mecca, and the great holiday named after the event that occurred at that place.

• Ghaffar is Arabic for ‘all-Forgiving’ and is one of God’s names.

 

• Ghasbi is usurpation.

• Ghufayla Prayer is a recommended 2-rak’a prayer offered after the maghrib prayer.

 

• Ghusl is a ritual washing/bathing of the entire body required after sexual intercourse, menstruation, seminal discharge, and other conditions that lead to being in a state of ritual impurity. There are two types:

    • Ghusl Irtimasi is a bath involving immersion of the whole body in the water. It is needless to say that such a ghusl can only be done in a body of water, e.g. a pool, river, lake or sea.

    • Ghusl Tartibi is an ordinal bath, performed in three stages; first, head down to the neck; then the right side of the body from the shoulder down to the foot; and lastly, the same on the left side of the body.

H

• Hadath is a ritual condition which occurs to a person consequent to his performing an act that prohibits him from performing salat and necessitates the performance of wudhu or ghusl or tayammum, e.g. emitting wind.

 

Hadath-Akbar is something that needs wudhu or ghusl.

• Hadath-Asghar is a minor hadath that needs wudhu.

• Hadd an-Nisab are items whereupon zakat is obligatory when they reach the limit of Nisab.

 

• Hadith is a narration/tradition reported from the Prophet (S) and the infallible Imams (a) i.e. their sayings, actions and tacit approvals of others’ actions. Hadith as a concept is interchangeable with the word Sunnah.

• Hajarul Aswad is the Black Stone.

• Hajj is the Islamic pilgrimage and one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

• Hajjatul Tamatu is the secnod session of the Hajj for those who are not resident in Mecca or its vicinity.

• Halal is something that is lawful and permissible to use/consume in Islam.

• Halq is to shave off the hair from the head (during Hajj).

• Hamza was an uncle of the Prophet who became a Muslim and was martyred at the battle of Uhud.

• Haqq is the right or claim to something. The Truth.

• Haram is that which is prohibited/unlawful in Islam. It is necessary to abstain from the acts that must avoided e.g. backbiting. If an unlawful act is practiced, it will cause one to be punished.

• Harun was the brother of Musa (Moses) and Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'an.

• Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) was the second Imam.

• Hasan b. Ali b. Muhammad, Abu Muhammad al-Askari (A.S.) was the 11th Imam.

• Haydh is menstruation.

 

• Hijab is the screening between non-mahram men and women.

• Hijra is the day the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) left Mecca for Medina. In particular, it was the Prophet's (S.A.W.) abandoning Mecca because of its mounting hostility, and transferring himself and his followers to Yathrib (200 miles north) whose people had invited him. He arrived on the 20th of September 622 AD, and the city proudly changed its name to Medinatu'l-Nabi (the Prophet's (S.A.W.) city). On Imam Ali's (A.S.) advice, Omar, reproached for not dating documents, took this event as the start o f the Muslim era, dubbing the year of the Hijrah year as Year 1 and starting it on the Lunar New Year's Day, the 1st of Muharram 622 AD.

• Hijr-e-Ismaaeel is a small wall in an arc shape adjoining the Ka'ba on one side.

• Hira is the cave wherein Prophet Muhammad (S) sat for worshipping Allah.

• Hujja is a prophet or an Imam who possess a relationship with God that is greater than anyone else. The Imam who is the hujja of his time functions as the ultimate mediator between God and humanity, giving the Imam the greatest precedence for interpretation of the Qur'an.

 

• Husain b. Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) was the third Imam.

• Husn means goodness.

 

• Huthur al-Qalb is focus of the mind and heart.

 

I

• Ibadah is devotion or worship.

• Ibrahim (Abraham) a prophet of Allah (swt) mentioned in the Qur'and and the Old Testament.

 Iftar is the breaking of the fast.

• Ihram is the state in which every pilgrim in Hajj has to perform his/her Hajj, consisting of two modest clothes and 25 restrictions.

• Ihtiyat is a precautionary action which usually requires repetition.

 

• Ihtiyat Prayer is the precautionary prayer performed to compensate the possible lack of the prayer where something has been missed out.

• Ihtiyat Wajib means precautionarily obligatory. Its significance is the same as that of wajib with the difference that in the problems where a mujtahid says it is “precautionarily obligatory”, one has the option of leaving his taqlid in this particular problem and following the rulings of the second-best mujtahid in that problem.

 

• Ijtihad means to struggle and strive. It refers to a mukallaf who reaches the level of ijtihad is able to derive the religious laws from their sources.

 

 Ikhlaas is when something is pure, or done with pure intention.

• al-Ilah is the One who is supposed to be worshipped, i.e. God. An abbreviation where the meaning of the word ‘Allah’ derives from the route ‘a-la-ha’ (to be worshipped).

 

• Imam is the leader of a Muslim community or of the congregational prayer. The term is generally applied to religious leaders. In Shi’i thought and practice, it is a term used to refer specifically to the twelve divinely appointed leaders and guides after the Holy Prophet (s), chosen by God to rule and to guide mankind to perfection.

• Iman is full, deep belief or faith.

• Injil is the New Testament.

• Insha'Allah means with the will of Allah.

• Iqamah see Eqama.

 

al-Irada al-Takwiniyya is God’s generative will.

 

al-Irada al-Tashri’iyya is God’s legislative will.

 

• Isa (Jesus) was the son of Mariam (Mary). He is a prophet of Allah.

 Isha’ is the night, and the prayer of the night, i.e. Isha’ prayer.

• Ishmael see Ismaeel.

• Islam was revealed to the Prophet (Sura III: Ali-Imran--The Family of Imran, verse 19) “The Religion of Allah is Al-Islam,” and again (Sura V: Ma'idah--The Table Spread, verse 3) “This day I have approved al-Islam for you as a religion.” Islam is the verbal noun of “asalama”--to submit oneself to God.

• Ismaeel (Ishmael) was the son of Abraham, Prophet of Allah and the father of the Arabs.

• Istibra is keeping the animal (i.e. camel) away from najis food for a certain period of time.

• Istighfar is to seek the forgiveness of Allah.

 

• Istihadha is the irregular menstrual bleeding.

 

• Istihsan is a term used for juristic "preference". In its literal sense it means "to consider something good". Muslim scholars may use it to express their preference for particular judgements in Islamic law over other possibilities.

J

• Jabeera is the treatment or bandage that is attached to a wound.

 

• Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn, al-Sadiq, Abu Abd Allah (A.S.) was the 6th Imam.

• Ja'iz see Halal.

• Jacob see Yaqub.

• Jama'at is a group or a congregation.

• Jami’ is seeking totality of religion and religious practices.

 

• Janaba is being in a state of major ritual impurity caused by sexual intercourse or masturbation.

 

• Jesus see Isa.

• Jihad is to struggle/strive in the way of Allah (swt), i.e. to spread Islam and propagate Truth.

• Jihad al-Akbar is the greater struggle which is with the self.

 

• Jinn is derived from a word meaning “to hide” or “to be hidden”. It refers to a creature made of fire that possesses both a body and a soul. The jinn have free will and are held morally and legally accountable before God. Some of them are believers and some of them do not believe.

• Joseph see Yusuf.

• Jum'ah is Friday.

 

• Junub is a ritually impure person.

K

• Ka'bah is the cubic house built by Prophet Ibrahim (A.S.) and his son Ismaeel (A.S.) more than 3000 years ago. It is God’s House in al-Masjid al_haram in Mecca, which is also the direction of prayer for all Muslims. It contains the Hajarul Aswad i.e. the Black Stone.

• Kafa is the shroud for the dead.

• Kaffarah are alms to be given as a form of punishment (expiation) that has been determined for the breaking of obligatory fasting.

 

• Kafir is a disbeliever, denier or rejecter of Truth.

 

• Kalima al-Shahadatayn is the testimony of faith. Also known as the Shahada.

 

• Karamah is Divine grace. Extraordinary acts performed at the hands of Imams, impious people or regular people. These acts are not to be mistaken with miracles that are only acts performed by prophets.

• Karbala a holy city In Iraq where Imam Hussain (sa) was killed there in day Ashura.

• Khabath are physical impurities such as blood and excrements.

 

• Khadija was the daughter of Khuwaylid and the wife of the Prophet (S.A.W.). She was the mother of Fatima (A.S.).

 

• Khalifa means caliph.

 

• Khaliq is Arabic for Creator and one of God’s names.

 

• Khalq means physical qualities.

 

• Khulq means inner traits.

• Khums is an Islamic levy of paying 1/5 of one’s wealth to the ruler of Muslims. One of the economic obligations of Muslims.

 

• Kibr is pride.

 

Kifa’i is an obligatory Islamic rule when the duty is obligatory on all members of the Muslim community until a person or a group of people fulfil it. If one person performs the act, then it is not required for others to perform. For example, the burial of a deceased Muslim is obligatory on any one person to perform.

 

Kurr is a specified quantity of pure water about 377kg that purifies any najis object as long as its colour, taste, and smell have not been altered. A kurr is about 42.875 square spans weighing 377.419kg. Water smaller than this is called ‘little water’.

 

L

• Labbaik literally means a response to the call.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

M

• Ma’ad is the belief in resurrection.

 

• Madina means city, and Medinatu'l Nabi (the city of the Prophet) was the name taken by the citizens of Yathrib, the town to which the Prophet (S.A.W.) and his companions migrated during Hijrah.

• Maghrib is the sunset, and the prayer at sunset, i.e. Maghrib prayer.

 

• Mahasin means good deeds.

• Mahram is one whom it is impermissible to get married to and there is no restrictions in looking at.

• Makarim means noble traits. Reciprocating bad with good.

 

• Makruh is something that is not recommended or a hated act that if one does not perform it, he will be rewarded, but if he performs it, he will not be punished.

• Ma’moon is one who follows and submits to the imam in offering a congregational prayer.

 

• Maqame-e-Ibrahim is a place near the Ka'bah, where there is a stone bearing the footprint of Prophet Ibrahim (a).

• Marji’ Taqlid is the mujtahid whom people do taqlid to (imitate).

 

• Marwah is a remnant of a mountain in Mecca.

 

• Masjid is a mosque, a place of Islamic worship.

 

• Masjid an-Nabi is the mosque of the prophet (as) in Medina.

 

• Masjid-u-Shajarah is a mosque outside Madinah, where most of the Hajis go there for wearing Ihram; a Meeqat.

• Masjid-ul-Haram is the Grand mosque in Makkah, where the Holy Ka'ba is situated.

• Mawla means master.

 

• Mayyit is a corpse, a dead body of a human being.

• Mecca is a holy city in Arabia.

• Medina see Madina.

• Meeqat are appointed places for wearing Ihram before entering Makkah.

• Mihrab is a prayer chamber/niche.

 

• Mina is an area about 12 km from Mecca.

• Moses see Musa.

• Mubah means permissible. An act that, if it is avoided or performed, does not merit a reward or punishment.

 

• Mudd is 750g of water.

 

• Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the Last of the Messengers of Allah to mankind.

• Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn al Baqir, Abu Ja'far (A.S.) is the 5th Imam.

• Muhammad b. Ali b. Musa, al-Jawad (A.S.) is the 9th Imam.

• Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Askari (A.S.) is the 12th Imam.

• Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar.

 

• al-Mujassimah is a small group of people who thought of God as having a physical body and likened Him to a human being.

 

• Mujtahid is a mukallaf who reaches the level of ijtihad and is able to derive the religious laws and rulings from four major sources: the Qur'an, Hadith, conscience of the community, and reasoning.

 

Mujtahid Mutajezzi (incomplete ijtihad) is one who can derive religious rulings in only some of the fields of jurisprudence.

 

Mujtahid Mutlaq (absolute mujtahid) is one who is in complete ijtihad and can derive religious rulings in all fields of jurisprudence.

 

Mukallaf is reaching the conditions to be able to think, reason and make decisions, and is therefore obligated to undertake religious duties. A mukallaf needs to be of age, have reason, and the physical ability.

 

Mukhlas is the purified.

 

Mukhlis is the pure.

 

• Mu'min is a believer, one who has Iman (pl. Mu'mineen)

• Muqalid is a follower of a qualified specialist on religious matters.

 

al-Murjawna li Amrillah is hope for God’s final judgement.

 

• Musa (Moses) was a Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Musa b. Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Kadhim, Abu al-Hasan (A.S.) is the 7th Imam.

al-Mushabbihah is a small group of people who likened God to some of His creatures.

 

• Muslim is one who believes in Allah, his Prophet (S.A.W.), the day of Resurrection (Qiyamat), recites the Kalemah, and accepts the commandments of Allah and His Prophet (S.A.W.) as the Truth.

• Mustahab means recommended. An act that is good to be performed and one will be rewarded for it, but when being not performed, one will not be punished.

 

• Mutlaq is (absolute) water. The only water that purifies najis objects.

 

• Muttaqeen are those who are God-wary and practise self-restraint from acting on desires.

 

• Muwahhid is a monotheist or believer in tawhid.

• Muzdalafah (also called Mash'ar) is the area between Mina and Arafat, approx. 20km from Mecca.

N

• Naar is the fire of Hell.

 

• Nabi is a Prophet.

• Nabuwwat is prophet-hood.

• Nadhr is one of the three types of vows to Almighty Allah (swt).

• Nafas means puerperal period.

 

• Nafila is a recommended prayer after or before the daily obligatory prayer.

• Nahi anil Munkar interdicting from ugly (sin).

• Najasa is a ritual impurity (but not dirtiness).

• Najis is something that is ritually impure.

• Najis al-Ayn is a dog and/or pig.

 

• Nifas is a puerperium.

• Nikah is a pronouncement of marriage according to Shari'ah.

• Nisab is the definite limited value that requires zakat to be paid for.

 

• Niyyah is to make an intention.

• Noah see Nuh.

• Non-Mahram is someone with whom marriage is permitted.

 

• Nubuwwa is having a belief in divine prophethood.

• Nuh (Noah) was a prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'and and the Old Testament.

P

• Pak is something that is clean and ritually pure.

• Prophet refers to a Messenger sent by Allah to mankind, such as: Adam, Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) (A.S.), and the Last Messenger, the Seal of the Prophethood, Muhammad (S.A.W.).

Q

• Qadha’ is an obligatory duty which is performed after its appointed time, such as obligatory prayers or fasting.

 

• Qalb is the heart and the centre for cognition and emotion.

• Qamar is the moon.

 

• Qasr Prayer is a 2-rak’a prayer performed in place of a 4-rak’a prayer when one is travelling out of their hometown, on condition that the distance of travel exceeds 8 farsakhs.

• Qibla is the direction to face for prayer (towards the Ka'bah).

• Qira-at is the reading of the prayer.

• Qiyam is the standing during the Salat for recitation of Suratul Hamd and the second Surah, and the standing after the Ruku'.

• Qiyamat is the day of Resurrection.

• Qiyas in Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.

 

• Qubh means badness.

 

• Qunut is the act of raising both palms in front of the face while a supplication is recited before the ruku (bowing) in the second rakat of Salat.

• Qur'an is the Holy Book, the Living Miracle, revealed from Allah as a guidance to mankind.

 

• Qur'anic Sciences are commentaries, denoting when the verses of the Qur’an were revealed.

• Quraysh is the tribe of Mecca to which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) belonged. All his descendants are also called Qurayshi.

• Qurbani is a sacrifice.

• Qurbat is the intnetion of nearness to Allah (swt).

R

• Rahim means Merciful and is one of the names of God.

 

• Rahman means all-Merciful and is one of the names of God.

 

• Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar.​

• Rak’a is a unit of the prayer consisting of standing, ruku (bowing) and sajda (prostration).

 

• Ramadan is the ninth and the holiest month of the Islamic calendar. It is the month of obligatory fasting from sunrise to sunset.

• Rasool is messenger.

 

• Rijal is the science of knowing all about the narrators of traditions whether reliable or not.

 

• Riya’ means showing off.

• Rukn means a “pillar” or “base”. It is also a base in the prayer where there are 5.

• Ruku' is the act of bowing in the Salat.

S

• S.A.W. stands for Sallal-lahu 'alayhi wa-alihi wa-sallam in Arabic, and means Blessings and peace of God be with him and his household. It is a prayer which is said after the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).

• Sabr means patience.

 

• Sahw means forgetfulness.

 

• Sadaqah is the charity given to the poor.

• Saee means walking between the rocks of Safa and Marwah.

• Safa is the part of a mountain in Mecca.

• Saheefa-Kamila is a collection of supplications by our 4th Imam (a), Zainul Abideen.

• Sajdah is the act of prostration in the Salat, when seven portions of the body touch the earth: the forehead on pure ground, two palms, two knees, and the two big toes. The two Sajdahs together are called sajdatain.

• Salam is a salutation. It is also the last recitation at the end of Salat.

• Salat are the obligatory prayers and one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

• Salawat are invocation of blessings, specifically the recitation of “Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa aali Muhammad” (O Allah, have blessings in Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad).

• Salman (al-Farsi) was the Persion Companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.)

• Sawm is the act of fasting and one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

• Sayyid is a descendant of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).

• Shaabaan is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar.

• Shahada is the declaration of faith and to announce: “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” This is also one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

• Shahid is a witness or sometimes used to mean a ‘martyr’ in the way of Islam (pl. Shuhada).

• Shaitan is Satan, the enemy of mankind.

• Shari'ah are the rules and regulations of Islam, the divine Law. Shari'ah is the totality of of Allah's Commandments relating to man's activities.

• Shams is the sun.

• Shawwal is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.

• Shi'a is a follower of the twelve Imams (A.S.).

 

• Shirk is a major sin where one associates others with God and practises idolatory/polytheism as a result.

 

• Sidq means truth-speaking, honesty, faithfulness to one’s promise. It is a state of being with the truth.

 

• Sidr is a powdered leaf of a lote-tree that is used to mix with water to perform ghusl of the dead.

 

• Sujud is prostration.

• Sunna is split into 3 categories: (1) the sayings of the infallible; (2) the actions of the infallible; (3) the acceptance of others’ sayings and doings by the infallible.

• Sura is a chapter of the Holy Qur'an. It literally means a sign, or a revelation.

T

• Taba’iyya means consequentiality. It is when something ritually impure becomes ritually pure after making something else ritually pure.

 

• Tabarra opposite of Tawalla, avoiding and eluding enemies of Allah and prophet and Imams.

• Tafseer is a term used for a commentary of any book, specifically the Holy Qur'an.

• Tahajjud also known as Salaatul Layl, is the midnight prayer with 11 rak’as. It is recommended to be performed after midnight, and before the Fajr prayer.

 

• Tahara is the state of being ritually pure (but does not necessarily mean cleanliness).

 

• Tahir means ritually pure.

• Tahur is the cave wherein Prophet Muhammad (S) stayed before finally migrating to Madinah.

• Takbeerat ul-Ihram is when the prayer commences with the recital of “Allahu akbar” (Allah is Great) and this makes such things as eating, drinking and talking, forbidden (haram) for the person praying.

• Talbiyah is the formula of response to the Call of Allah, which must be pronounced immediately after Niyyah of Ihram.

 

• Tamam Prayer is a full prayer, and opposite to a Qasr prayer.

 

• Ta’qeeb is something that is recited after a prayer is finished with tasleem, such as reciting dhikr, supplications, and Qur’anic verses.

 

• Taqiyya means permissible dissimulation.

 

Taqlid is imitation to someone who has the ability to derive the religious laws from their sources.

 

Taqwa means God-conscious, God-fearing, and constantly seeking Allah’s (swt) pleasure.

 

Tasbih means glorification.

 

Tasbihat al-Arba’ah are the four tasbihs. Refers to the recital of “Subhan Allahi wa’l-hamdulillahi wa la ilaha illallahu Allahu akbar” (Glory be to Allah; praise be to Allah; there is no god but Allah; Allah is greater).

 

Tashahhud is reciting the Shahada.

 

Tasleem is the concluding portion of the Muslim prayer (salat), where one recites “As-salamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh” ("Peace and blessings of Allah (God) be unto you."

• Tawaff is the ritual circumambulation around the holy Kaaba that is performed in the Hajj, Umra (the minor Hajj) or at any time in Masjid al-Haram in Mecca.

Tawaffi is being taken away. A concept of death.

• Tawalla is loving and supporting and following (Allah and prophet and Imams and their allies).

• Tawbah means repentance and the returning back to the original condition before committing a sin.

• Tawhid is the belief in the Divine Unity and Oneness of God.

​• al-Tawhid fi al-Af’al means Unity in His Divine acts.

 

• al-Tawhid fi al-Dhat means Unity with respect to His Divine essence.

 

• al-Tawhid fi al-Sifat means Unity with respect to His Divine attributes.

 

• al-Tawhid al-Ubudiyya means Divine Unity put in practice by worship or servitude, i.e. we only worship God alone, and serve only Him.

 

• Tawwab is he who is most returning to His mercy and most accepting of repentance.

 

• Tayammum is the act of dry ablution using a purified sand or dust, which may be performed in place of ritual washing (wudu or ghusl) if no clean water is readily available or if one is suffering from moisture-induced skin inflammation or scaling.

 

• Thabh is slaughtering an animal due to Islamic rulings.

 

• Thaqalayn are “the two weighty things” i.e. The Holy Qur’an and the Ahl-al-Bayt (a).

 

• Thawab is a Divine blessing.

 

• Thikr is the rememberance of Allah (swt).

• Turba is the small disk of hardened soil the Shia usually prostrate on. A special piece of dried clay, usually from one of the holy places, i.e. from the shrines of the Holy Imams (A.S.).

U

• ‘Ujb means vanity.

 

• Ulama is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology.

 

• Umm Kulthum see Zaynab.

• 'Umra is the “little” pilgrimage, performed in ritual purity wearing the Ihram, the seamless ceremonial garments consisting of a white sheet from the navel to the knees and a white sheet covering the left shoulder, back and breast, knotted on t he right.

 

• Usul are the “bases” of religion.

• Usul al-Din are the doctrinal aspects of faith.

 

• Usul al-Fiqh is the science of deriving the religious laws and verdicts.

W

• Wafat is a death.

• Wajib means obligatory (pl. Wajibat). An act that must be performed, while not performing it will cause one to be punished; such as the daily prayers.

 

• Waly al-Faqih is a leader of the Islamic society.

 

• Witr Prayer is a one-rak’a prayer performed at the end of the recommended midnight prayers i.e. salaat ul-Layl (see Tahajjud).

 

• Wudu’ is a ritual washing to be performed in preparation for prayer and worship.

 

• Wudu’ Irtimasi is when one, with the intention of wudu’, puts his face and hands under water or that when his face or hand have been already under water and then he intends to perform wudu’ when taking them out of water.

 

• Wudu’ Jabeera is performing wudu’ with a wound. The parts that can be washed or wiped normally must be done in the usual manner. The parts that cannot be washed or wiped normally, one must wipe with a wet hand on the bandage covering the wound.

 

Y

• Yaqub was a prophet of Allah, mentioned in the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Yusuf was a prophet of Allah, mentioned the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

Z

• Zakat is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax. It is one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

• Zakat al-Fitra is when one gives some of his money to the poor on the day of Eid al-Fitr, when the month of Ramadan ends.

 

• Zamzam is the name of a well at Makkah.

• Zaynab (Umm Kulthum) was the younger daughter of Ali and Fatima (A.S.).

• Ziyara is to visit the sacred places and/or to recite special salutations for the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and his household (A.S.).

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